Jul 17, 2014

In Real Time

The finches of Galapagos are an iconic symbol of evolution in action: each species neatly adapted to its island's environment, thanks to enormous time spans and total isolation. But isolation is not so easy to maintain these days. Despite heroic efforts by the government of Ecuador to control the movement of critters from island to island, sometimes even just putting your foot on the ground can radically affect a landscape, or even alter the fate of Darwin’s famous finches.

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Jad Abumrad:

I'm Jad Abumrad.

 

Robert Krulwich:

I'm Robert Krulwich.

 

Jad Abumrad:

This is RadioLab.

 

Robert Krulwich:

Today, a whole hour on the Galapagos Islands. The place that inspired Charles Darwin to create his theory of evolution, whose basic ingredients are lots of time, isolation, and then constant change; but Darwin didn't consider this possibility. What if, on these islands, thousands of tourists arrive every day carrying fruits and chocolates and souvenirs, jumping from island to island.

 

Jad Abumrad:

Now, the Galapagos government spends millions of dollars checking all the goods that come in and out, trying to quarantine the ones that might have things that are a problem, but what if simply putting your foot on the ground can completely transform a place?

 

Speaker 5:

[Spanish 00:01:25]

 

Tim Howard:

[Spanish 00:01:26]

 

Jad Abumrad:

Back to producer Tim Howard.

 

Tim Howard:

So I met this woman named Heinke Jäger.

 

Jad Abumrad:

Mm-hmm (affirmative).

 

Tim Howard:

Who is uh, like a plant scientist.

 

Heinke Jäger:

I'm the Restoration Ecologist at the Charles Darwin Foundation.

 

Tim Howard:

Here we are in Los Gemelos.

 

Tim Howard:

We were going to look at these incredible craters called Los Gemelos.

 

Tim Howard:

Oh, I almost got hit my a car.

 

Tim Howard:

And, as we were walking along the path.

 

Heinke Jäger:

See?

 

Tim Howard:

She's like "Oh wait, look at this."

 

Heinke Jäger:

Right here.

 

Tim Howard:

She points just to the right of the path.

 

Heinke Jäger:

Look at this species here.

 

Tim Howard:

Small, leafy green thing.

 

Heinke Jäger:

They call it Llanten in Spanish. It is in- It's Plantago. Uh, I think in the US they call it, uh, was it, the wrench of the white man?

 

Speaker 8:

Okay.

 

Tim Howard:

(laughs). The, the, the, the wrench of the white man?

 

Heinke Jäger:

Yes.

 

Tim Howard:

It's actually the footprint of the white man. Doesn't matter. Point is-

 

Heinke Jäger:

It's an introduced species.

 

Tim Howard:

It's introduced. It's found in Europe, North Africa. Shouldn't be here.

 

Heinke Jäger:

And you have this one here.

 

Tim Howard:

She points right next to it.

 

Heinke Jäger:

It's called Tradescantia.

 

Tim Howard:

Shrubby thing, green and white leaves.

 

Heinke Jäger:

It has a terrible common name in English. I'm not going to say it. (laughs)

 

Tim Howard:

Wandering Jew. Basic houseplant. You can buy it at Home Depot

 

Heinke Jäger:

[crosstalk 00:02:33]

 

Tim Howard:

But, uh, there it is, in the Galapagos.

 

Heinke Jäger:

And, um,

 

Tim Howard:

Along this path.

 

Heinke Jäger:

Just looking to the right and the left are [crosstalk 00:02:39]

 

Tim Howard:

And then, she just starts counting the number of invasive species at "One, two, three four, five..."

 

Heinke Jäger:

As you can see here, it's only right next the trail, but not so much further in. You will have [crosstalk 00:02:48]

 

Tim Howard:

You see that they're only there for this border of about 5-10 inches along the edge of that path. Why? Why would that be? Because Heinke said what happens is that tourists, they'll be back in their home country, they'll be walking around in a garden or a park, and it'll be filled with tiny seeds.

 

Heinke Jäger:

The seeds stick to shoes and socks, and, um, trousers.

 

Tim Howard:

Oh.

 

Tim Howard:

They wear those trousers on the plane, and then they wear them when they come here.

 

Heinke Jäger:

And then people walk, and then just distribute all these [inaudible 00:03:15], the seeds along the trail.

 

Tim Howard:

Wow.

 

Tim Howard:

Now, most of these plants are actually harmless, and you know, like you said, Galapagos National Park, they spend tons of money, tons of time, trying to keep invasives out, but fact is, there's only so much you can do, and every once in a while, one of these hitchhikers slips under the radar, and just wreaks havoc.

 

Tim Howard:

You just grabbed it, just like that. You just put your hands around it.

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

Yeah. But that's only possible the first day.

 

Tim Howard:

So, while we were in the highlands of Santa Cruz, Heinke took me through the woods to meet this guy named Arnaud.

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

My name is Arnaud [Chimeron 00:03:56]

 

Tim Howard:

He's an ornithologist.

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

From the University of Vienna.

 

Tim Howard:

And shortly after we walked up, he reached out into this tree, and he grabbed this tiny little baby finch right off the branch.

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

[inaudible 00:04:07]

 

Tim Howard:

He's adorable. He's a-

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

Yeah.

 

Tim Howard:

Oh my god. He's a- he- he looks a little bit furry almost.

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

Really Tiny.

 

Tim Howard:

Vulnerable.

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

This is a fledgling of a warbler finch, so the warbler finch is the smallest of the Darwin finches.

 

Tim Howard:

I can like see him pulsing kind of as he's breathing.

 

Tim Howard:

So, Darwin's Finches.

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

[inaudible 00:04:25]

 

Tim Howard:

In short, Darwin, when he visited Galapagos, he collected a lot of specimens of finches, took them back to England, and, eventually, he realized that the beaks had all adapted. They were all a little bit different depending on which island the finches lived on.

 

Tim Howard:

Well, the beaks- the beaks adapted to what- whatever the finches- what they were eating

 

Jad Abumrad:

What they were eating.

 

Robert Krulwich:

One island's finches had literally, like, the- the beak would be shaped sort of long,

 

Jad Abumrad:

Mm-hmm (affirmative).

 

Robert Krulwich:

And then the next island, it would look almost the same but much shorter, and this became one of the- one of the most important pieces of evidence that, you know, when animals would move from one place to another, that they would begin to differentiate-

 

Jad Abumrad:

Oh wow. These are very, very important beaks.

 

Robert Krulwich:

Very important, yes.

 

Tim Howard:

But, speaking of beaks, that finch that Arnaud was holding...

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

He's just afraid.

 

Tim Howard:

His beak...

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

Do you the- [inaudible 00:05:13] this side is extremely huge.

 

Tim Howard:

Oh yeah.

 

Tim Howard:

The nostrils-

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

The nostrils-

 

Tim Howard:

Have big holes.

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

Yeah.

 

Tim Howard:

Ah, poor little guy.

 

Tim Howard:

Something had gotten inside this little finch's nostrils, drilled these holes, and it was now eating the flesh on the inside of the bird's nostrils.

 

Tim Howard:

Oh.

 

Tim Howard:

Scientists first began to see this in 1997 when they started to find nests full of dead baby finches. At first, nobody had any idea what kind of creature it was, so they began to frantically study it.

 

Speaker 10:

[Spanish 00:05:47]

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:05:47]

 

Tim Howard:

I actually visited one of the main researchers, [Piedad Lincango 00:05:53]

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:05:54]

 

Tim Howard:

She's lived in Galapagos for over a decade. She showed me her lab.

 

Tim Howard:

I'm surrounded by shelves, and on the shelves are these tiny little plastic cups that are filled with, um, flies.

 

Tim Howard:

This is the villain.

 

Tim Howard:

[Spanish 00:06:10]

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:06:10]

 

Tim Howard:

In fact, Piedad says

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:06:24]

 

Tim Howard:

That it's actually in the same family as the regular house fly.

 

Tim Howard:

Huh.

 

Tim Howard:

But it's actually a botfly called philornis downsi.

 

Robert Krulwich:

Can you just spell philornis downsi?

 

Tim Howard:

Yeah. It's P-H-I-L- I can't spell out loud.

 

Robert Krulwich:

Philor

 

Jad Abumrad:

Philor

 

Tim Howard:

L-O-R-N-I-S D-O-W-N-S-I.

 

Jad Abumrad:

Okay.

 

Robert Krulwich:

Huh.

 

Charlotte:

Philornis actually means bird loving.

 

Tim Howard:

That's Charlotte Causton. She's a researcher.

 

Charlotte:

At the Charles Darwin Foundation.

 

Tim Howard:

She says there's actually very little known about the fly. They're not sure where it came from, or quite how it got here, but here's what they do know.

 

Tim Howard:

The adult fly seems to be harmless.

 

Charlotte:

The adult fly is actually vegetarian. It feed on flowers and we think decomposing fruits.

 

Tim Howard:

Baby flies, they're not vegetarian.

 

Charlotte:

They will, you know, suck blood, and what happens is that, um, as soon as the birds start laying eggs

 

Tim Howard:

Mother flies swoop in

 

Charlotte:

And lays their eggs on the base of the nest.

 

Tim Howard:

Sort of underneath the finch eggs.

 

Charlotte:

Once the eggs hatch, the eggs hatch of the flies as well, and the larvae

 

Tim Howard:

Wriggling little larvae will crawl out from the bottom of the nest, up the finch's body, into its beak.

 

Charlotte:

And they go into the- the noses and, um, of the- of the baby finches-

 

Tim Howard:

And just start eating.

 

Charlotte:

You know, they basically feed on the blood of the- the baby birds.

 

Robert Krulwich:

How did these little fly babies know- I mean that's a- that's an- a very specific trip to take.

 

Charlotte:

Good question. We're still trying to figure that out. You know, we assume that it was carbon dioxide-

 

Tim Howard:

Carbon dioxide?

 

Charlotte:

From the breathing of the birds.

 

Tim Howard:

Wow.

 

Charlotte:

Yeah.

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:08:07]

 

Tim Howard:

She's opening a box of some of the birds, the little [Spanish 00:08:13], the finches.

 

Tim Howard:

Oh, god.

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:08:17]

 

Tim Howard:

Piedad showed me this- this tiny little dead finch in this box.

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:08:24]

 

Tim Howard:

[Spanish 00:08:27]

 

Tim Howard:

Wow. There's a little hole into the brain of this little finch. Oh my god. [Spanish 00:08:32]

 

Piedad Lincango:

Mm-hmm (affirmative).

 

Tim Howard:

They ate the whole back of this little finch.

 

Jad Abumrad:

Wait, so how big a problem is this?

 

Tim Howard:

Well, I talked to one scientist

 

Sonia:

Sonia Kleindorfer, I'm professor in animal behavior at Flinders University, South Australia.

 

Tim Howard:

And she told me that researchers recently did a survey of finch nests.

 

Sonia:

Four different species on two islands, and all research groups found about 95% mortality in the nest.

 

Tim Howard:

95% of the babies were dead?

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

Yeah.

 

Tim Howard:

And Arnaud told me

 

Arnaud Chimeron:

That this year, small tree finches, so far we had only had two nests with fledglings, and all the others were dead. Yeah. So it's a lot, yeah.

 

Tim Howard:

But even worse

 

Sonia:

So far we found Philonis on 13 islands.

 

Tim Howard:

The fly is spreading, island to island.

 

Robert Krulwich:

Is there any time scale we should be worry about? Like are these finches disappearing very fast, very slowly?

 

Tim Howard:

Depends on the species.

 

Sonia:

We have at least five species that are known to be facing extinction, and another six in serious decline.

 

Tim Howard:

These five species, does that mean that they may go extinct in the next five years? In the next 50 years?

 

Sonia:

I hope not. (laughs) But, um, you know, we have the case of the mangrove finch. We have 60-80 individuals left.

 

Robert Krulwich:

Wow.

 

Sonia:

It's a race against time.

 

Tim Howard:

So

 

Speaker 14:

[Spanish 00:10:00]

 

Tim Howard:

For starters, they put up all these traps.

 

Speaker 14:

[Spanish 00:10:03]

 

Tim Howard:

They- they took me outside, they showed me where the traps are.

 

Tim Howard:

There's a trap hanging from a tree here.

 

Tim Howard:

And you see them, actually, all over Santa Cruz. These bright yellow traps, hanging from trees.

 

Speaker 14:

[Spanish 00:10:12]

 

Jad Abumrad:

And this is to control the fly population?

 

Tim Howard:

No, no. They would need, like, millions of traps every few feet to do that. This is just to grab a few flies, take them back to the lab, and study them, so they can learn how to fight them.

 

Tim Howard:

Charlotte and Piedad's fantasy is that the flies

 

Charlotte:

Use a pheromone to attract the opposite sex.

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:10:32]

 

Charlotte:

It would be lovely if we could find something like that.

 

Tim Howard:

Because, if they could find that chemical, that love chemical that the flies use to attract each other, they could disrupt it.

 

Charlotte:

Confuse the flies

 

Tim Howard:

And screw up their mating.

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:10:44]

 

Tim Howard:

Another possibility is

 

Charlotte:

Sterile insect technique.

 

Tim Howard:

Sterilize male flies and introduce them back into the wild.

 

Charlotte:

So that the female mates with a sterile fly, and obviously doesn't produce fertile eggs.

 

Tim Howard:

If they can't make babies, the population will crash

 

Charlotte:

And in some cases, you can successfully eradicate a species.

 

Jad Abumrad:

This is very much like the mosquitoes

 

Robert Krulwich:

Very much.

 

Jad Abumrad:

That Annie talked about a couple podcasts ago.

 

Tim Howard:

Right. But here's the problem.

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:11:10]

 

Tim Howard:

If they're gonna release sterilized male flies into the wild, they have to be able to raise

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:11:17]

 

Tim Howard:

Millions of these flies in the lab.

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:11:21]

 

Tim Howard:

And they're trying like crazy.

 

Tim Howard:

She's showing me all of the larvaes that hatched today, and they're-

 

Tim Howard:

Piedad showed me four baby flies that had just hatched.

 

Tim Howard:

-And they're in these little cup-

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:11:33]

 

Tim Howard:

But she told me that these four flies will probably die because they always die.

 

Charlotte:

Right now, we have huge problems trying to breed a philornis in captivity, which is ironic, given, you know, how abundant it is in the wild.

 

Piedad Lincango:

[Spanish 00:11:52]

 

Tim Howard:

When I was there, Piedad told me that so far they had only successfully raised three. Three adult flies.

 

Jad Abumrad:

But you're saying they needed millions.

 

Tim Howard:

Yeah.

 

Tim Howard:

And meanwhile, the finch populations are just getting decimated. Uh, Charlotte says that they're trying to respond. Ornithologists have started to notice some new behaviors.

 

Charlotte:

Um

 

Tim Howard:

For instance

 

Charlotte:

Adult birds picking the larvae out of the nostrils of the baby birds.

 

Sonia:

And what we're starting to see is that they're beginning to consume them.

 

Jad Abumrad:

You mean eat the fly larvae?

 

Tim Howard:

Yeah. Which 15 years ago, they would never do.

 

Sonia:

Back in the year 2000

 

Tim Howard:

Sonia and some colleagues tried finding the finches some fly larvae.

 

Sonia:

And if ever there were a look of disgust on a finch face, that was it. So I think there's been a change.

 

Tim Howard:

They're also seeing baby finches climbing up over each other, just struggling to get away from the larvae on the bottom of the nest.

 

Sonia:

Um, and they'll even start standing on the nest ring just to avoid being eaten.

 

Tim Howard:

But when I asked Charlotte what she makes of all of these changes, she said

 

Charlotte:

Um. I think probably too little, too late.

 

Tim Howard:

But then, Sonia told me something really surprising.

 

Sonia:

Yeah. That- that was a very unexpected discovery.

 

Tim Howard:

Takes a couple steps to get there, but just to set it up, back in 2000, she was on Floreana island for the first time.

 

Sonia:

I started studying Darwin's finches

 

Tim Howard:

In particular

 

Sonia:

Three tree finch species. The small, the medium, and the large, and we went out, and we set up our mist nets, and we caught the birds, and we measured them.

 

Tim Howard:

And the thing to note is that even though these are our three different species, they're actually really hard to tell apart visually. So, she would end up relying on their songs, their mating calls.

 

Sonia:

Yup.

 

Tim Howard:

Do you remember the song types. Could you whistle them for me?

 

Sonia:

Oh. Yes. It's a- it's a very simple song. The small tree finch goes something like "ta ta ta ta ta too." That's a small tree finch.

 

Tim Howard:

(laughs)

 

Sonia:

And the- (laughs) The medium tree finch is just a bit slower. For the medium it's a "ta ta ta too." For the large "Chee chee chee. Chee."

 

Tim Howard:

Wow, it's like a soprano saxophone, an alto, and a- a tenor or something like that.

 

Sonia:

(laughs). That's right. So, we- we just, you know, sat in the forest and were- and we would always quiz each other. What's that, what's that, and we all agreed.

 

Tim Howard:

Because the calls are really distinct. Easy to tell apart.

 

Sonia:

But the interesting thing was, from year to year, it got more difficult.

 

Tim Howard:

Sonia says, each time she'd go into the field, the songs sounded like they were starting to blur together?

 

Sonia:

Then when I showed up after a few years again, I- I was truly even more perplexed.

 

Tim Howard:

She's like "God, why can I tell these finches apart?"

 

Sonia:

B- it- it was very confusing.

 

Tim Howard:

"Am I losing my touch?"

 

Sonia:

But that shouldn't really happen. You should actually get better with experience.

 

Tim Howard:

Yeah.

 

Sonia:

Not worse. And that's where I thought "Oh, something's changed in the system."

 

Sonia:

I like to think of it as a kind of Darwin finch, you know, sleuthing adventure. So-

 

Tim Howard:

So, Sonia and her team rounded up some of the birds they'd tagged.

 

Sonia:

We collected genetic samples

 

Tim Howard:

Got some DNA

 

Sonia:

And song samples.

 

Tim Howard:

Made some recordings.

 

Sonia:

Yup.

 

Tim Howard:

Brought all this up into the lab

 

Sonia:

Analyzed the genetic samples, and

 

Tim Howard:

And had this terrible realization.

 

Sonia:

That the large tree finch is now extinct.

 

Tim Howard:

Totally gone from the island.

 

Tim Howard:

So, you really only had two species left. You had the small tree finches and the medium tree finches, and based on that genetic data, the small tree finches, not doing great, but compared to the medium tree finches? They are, because medium tree finches were on the brink of extinction.

 

Jad Abumrad:

Huh. Like the large ones.

 

Tim Howard:

Yeah.

 

Tim Howard:

But then she sees something amazing in that genetic data. She sees a small group of birds who have mixed up genes.

 

Sonia:

A hybrid cluster.

 

Tim Howard:

Some genes from the small tree finches, and some from the medium tree finches.

 

Jad Abumrad:

Huh. What does that mean?

 

Tim Howard:

Well, it means that these two different finches had started having babies together, which should never actually happen because these are totally separate species.

 

Sonia:

That's really the classical definition of a species.

 

Tim Howard:

It's like a biological rule about who you're not gonna make a baby with.

 

Sonia:

So they- they choose not to breed even if they could.

 

Tim Howard:

For, who knows, maybe a million years, the medium tree finch has patrolled that boundary. Like, "I've got my thing over here, and you've got your thing over there." But then, along come the flies, and all of a sudden, like over maybe 20 years, these medium tree finches, they start to break their own biggest rule, and they start to mate outside of their own kind.

 

Jad Abumrad:

And these hybrid finches, are they doing better against the flies?

 

Tim Howard:

Well, there's- there's a couple clues that say maybe. Yeah, for example, when you look in the nests.

 

Sonia:

They seem to have fewer parasites.

 

Tim Howard:

And they seem to have more babies that survive.

 

Sonia:

15%.

 

Tim Howard:

Wow.

 

Sonia:

Whereas the numbers were very small for the medium tree finch and the smaller for the small tree finch.

 

Tim Howard:

Wow. I daresay that sounds kind of hopeful.

 

Sonia:

It does. Yep.

 

Tim Howard:

Now, the jury's still very much out on what will happen, but

 

Sonia:

If the hybrids do have a fitness advantage

 

Tim Howard:

And if they survive, we may be witnessing, in hyper speed, the creation of an entirely new species.

 

Sonia:

It would possibly be one of the first vertebrate examples of speciation in real time that we can observe.

 

Tim Howard:

So, tucked into the story of these finches is the story of Galapagos. Same exact story that Darwin saw, the processes that he described that just never, ever stop. It's this unending struggle.

 

Tim Howard:

One last thing. My last night there, I went to meet up with that guy, Leonidas, who was running for mayor. I met him at this pizza place, the election had happened the night before, and-

 

Jad Abumrad:

Did he win?

 

Tim Howard:

No, uh, Bucelli, the incumbent won. So, we go outside to chat.

 

Leonidas:

[Spanish 00:19:12] I was running as mayor.

 

Tim Howard:

Turns out he speaks some English, so we- you know, we do this interview in English, and I'm- I'm almost embarrassed that I wanted to talk to him, because I just think the dude is gonna be so down and out.

 

Leonidas:

(laughs)

 

Tim Howard:

Exactly the opposite. He was so joyful.

 

Robert Krulwich:

To have lost?

 

Tim Howard:

That's what I thought.

 

Tim Howard:

You're not sad?

 

Leonidas:

(laughs) Ay, no, never, friend!

 

Tim Howard:

And he's like "Friend, this is a field of four. The other three all have money behind them, and you see their flags all over Santa Cruz. I just came in second."

 

Robert Krulwich:

Whoa.

 

Tim Howard:

The guy who wins, he spent $500,000. I spend, what, two grand?

 

Leonidas:

Friend, is the beginning- is the beginning

 

Tim Howard:

Yeah.

 

Leonidas:

Of a new- a new future for the Galapagos islands.

 

Tim Howard:

We are ascending.

 

Leonidas:

And we keep- we have our dreams up. So nature has a voice now, the sea lion has a voice in us, the tortoise has a voice in us, the penguin and everyone.

 

Robert Krulwich:

So something is happening.

 

Tim Howard:

That's exactly how he sees it.

 

Tim Howard:

So

 

Leonidas:

Thank you very much for the interview. I hope you enjoy the Galapagos islands.

 

Leonidas:

(singing)

 

Jad Abumrad:

Producer Tim Howard.

 

Robert Krulwich:

And before we post, very special thanks to Matthew Judas [Kilty 00:20:39], without whom Tim would have been crushed just by the sheer amount of tape that he gathered.

 

Jad Abumrad:

Indeed. Also, thanks to Dylan Keefe for original music, thanks to Trish Dolman and Screen Siren Pictures' Alex [Galaphant 00:20:49], Mathias Espinosa, the naturals guide from first chapter who wrote this song, "Pico Pinzones." He's also a well-known musician in Galapagos it turns out. Thanks to the Galapagos National Park, Charles Darwin Foundation, Island Conversation, and the Galapagos Conversancy.

 

Jad Abumrad:

I'm Jad Abumrad.

 

Robert Krulwich:

I'm Robert Krulwich.

 

Jad Abumrad:

Thanks for listening.

 

James Gibbs:

Hi this is James Gibbs calling from Syracuse, New York.

 

Charlotte:

Hi, my name is Charlotte Causton.

 

Sonia:

Hi, this is Sonia Kleindorfer from Flinders University.

 

Charlotte:

And I have been asked to leave a message for the credits. Radiolab is produced by WNYC

 

James Gibbs:

And distributed by NPR.

 

Charlotte:

And distributed by NPR.

 

Sonia:

Radiolab is produced by Jad Abumrad. Our staff includes

 

Charlotte:

Ellen Horn

 

Sonia:

Soren Wheeler

 

James Gibbs:

Tim Harold, Brenna Farrell

 

Sonia:

Molly Webster, Melissa O'Donnell

 

Charlotte:

Dylan Keefe, Jamie York,

 

Sonia:

Lynn Levy, Andy Mills, and Kelsey Padgett

 

James Gibbs:

With help from Arianne Wack

 

Sonia:

Matt Kielty

 

James Gibbs:

Barry Sinco and Lily Sullivan.

 

Sonia:

Special thanks Kate Hopkins, Henry Nichols

 

Charlotte:

Jason Cobbler, Carolyn Bassett, Robert Lam, and Trish Dolman.

 

James Gibbs:

Hope that- that was good enough.

 

Sonia:

Okay. I hope that was okay. Thanks.

 

Charlotte:

That's it. Bye.

 

Sonia:

Bye.

 

James Gibbs:

Thanks for the opportunity. Bye bye.

 

Speaker 17:

End of message.